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Acquisition and cross-servicing agreement


An Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) is an agreement between two or more countries that allows for the exchange of logistics support, supplies, and services during military operations. These agreements simplify the process of cooperation among nations, promoting efficient and cost-effective support during joint exercises, training, contingencies, and humanitarian operations. By facilitating resource and service sharing, ACSAs help enhance military readiness and interoperability among partnering nations.

Key Takeaways

  1. Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) is a bilateral agreement between two nations that allows their military forces to temporarily exchange support, supplies, and services, thus enhancing interoperability and cooperation during joint exercises, training, and other activities.
  2. ACSA covers items such as food, fuel, transportation, ammunition, and equipment, as well as repair and maintenance services. This agreement notably excludes the exchange of weapons systems and technology.
  3. By facilitating logistics support, reducing costs, and increasing operational efficiency, ACSA plays a vital role in strengthening relationships between participating countries and contributes to the overall effectiveness of their military operations.


The military operations term Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) is important because it facilitates the exchange of logistics support, supplies, and services between participating nations, promoting interoperability and cooperation among military forces.

By streamlining the sharing of resources, ACSA enables countries to respond more effectively and efficiently to regional crises, humanitarian efforts, or joint training exercises.

These agreements not only foster goodwill and solidify alliances among nations, but also reduce the logistical burden, costs, and response time of deploying military support in various situations.

Overall, ACSAs play a crucial role in maintaining international peace and stability by enabling the collaborative efforts of different countries’ military forces.


Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) serves as a vital instrument in facilitating international cooperation and fostering strategic partnerships among participating countries. Its primary purpose is to strengthen defense capabilities, enhance military readiness, and improve interoperability among partner nations.

ACSA agreements play a crucial role in supporting joint military exercises, peacekeeping operations, and humanitarian and disaster relief efforts. By enabling the exchange of logistic support, supplies, and services, these agreements allow nations to extend the operational reach and sustainability of their respective military forces while alleviating the financial and logistical burdens associated with maintaining a consistent supply chain during such activities.

Moreover, ACSA agreements enhance efficiency in military operations by streamlining acquisition processes and minimizing redundancy. Participating countries can leverage each other’s assets and capabilities, reducing the need for redundant resources and operational elements in the staging or deployment of a mission.

These agreements also afford partner nations more extensive access to each other’s infrastructure, specialized expertise, and strategic locations, collectively contributing to the fulfillment of shared security objectives. In essence, ACSA arrangements foster an environment of mutual trust and collaboration, promoting regional and global stability by collectively addressing security challenges and ensuring successful execution of operations across a wide range of military and humanitarian scenarios.

Examples of Acquisition and cross-servicing agreement

US-Japan Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (1996): The United States and Japan signed an Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) in 1996 to facilitate logistical support between the two countries’ armed forces during joint exercises, peacekeeping operations, and humanitarian missions. This agreement allows the US and Japanese militaries to procure supplies and services from each other, including refueling, transportation, and repair services. The agreement has been updated several times, most recently in 2019, to enhance its scope and respond to the evolving security environment in the Asia-Pacific region.

US-NATO Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreements (1982 onwards): The United States and several other NATO member countries have entered into bilateral ACSAs to enable mutual logistical support during military operations, exercises, and training missions. These agreements promote efficiency, cost savings, and military readiness by allowing partner nations to share resources and support each other in various operational contexts. The first NATO ACSA was created between the US and Norway in 1982, and since then, similar agreements have been established with many other NATO countries such as Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, and Turkey.

India-Australia Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (2020): In June 2020, India and Australia signed a Mutual Logistics Support Agreement (MLSA), which is a type of ACSA that covers the exchange of logistics support, supplies, and services between their respective armed forces. This agreement aims to enhance military interoperability, increase joint training and exercises, and strengthen strategic cooperation in the Indo-Pacific region. Under the MLSA, the two countries can access each other’s military bases and facilities to refuel and resupply, as well as share transport and logistics services during joint operations, training exercises, and humanitarian assistance missions.

FAQ – Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement

What is an Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA)?

An Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) is a bilateral agreement between the United States and its partner countries that enables exchange of logistic support, supplies, and services during combined military operations. It helps in improving interoperability and cooperation between the participating nations.

What is the purpose of an ACSA?

The purpose of an ACSA is to facilitate the exchange of logistics support, supplies, and services during military operations, training exercises, or contingencies. It streamlines the process and allows for greater efficiency and cost-effectiveness during combined operations.

Which countries have ACSAs with the United States?

The United States has ACSAs with over 100 partner countries, including NATO allies, coalition partners, and other international organizations. Some examples include Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, South Korea, and Japan.

What types of support can be exchanged under an ACSA?

Under an ACSA, the following logistics support, supplies, and services can be exchanged: food, billeting, transportation, petroleum products, ammunition, medical support, spare parts, storage, and base operations support. It does not include the exchange of weapons or lethal systems.

How are reimbursements for ACSA transactions handled?

Reimbursements for ACSA transactions can be handled in several ways including cash payment, replacement-in-kind (where equivalent goods or services are provided in return), or equal-value exchange (where both sides agree on an offsetting transaction of equal value).

What is the duration of an ACSA?

Typically, ACSAs are signed for a period of ten years, and can be extended or terminated by either party upon mutual agreement. The terms and conditions of each ACSA may vary depending on the partner country and the specific support requirements of the participating nations.

Related Military Operation Terms

  • Defense Logistics Cooperation
  • International Military Support
  • Mutual Logistic Support
  • Interoperability Enhancement
  • Reimbursement Framework

Sources for More Information